Li et al. (2022): Measuring the Efficiency of Energy and Carbon Emissions: A Review of Definitions, Models, and Input-Output Variables

Shuangjie Li, Wei Wang, Hongyu Diao, Liming Wang IN: Energies 2022, 15, 962.

Relevant literature in this field, published between 2006 and 2021, has been systematically analyzed. This review found that the current definitions of total-factor energy efficiency and total-factor carbon emissions efficiency are confusing and misleading. Furthermore, future research
on energy saving and carbon emissions reduction should incorporate subject areas such as economics, energy, and ecology.