Cooper et al. (2022): The life cycle environmental impacts of negative emission technologies in North America

Jasmin Cooper, Luke Dubey, Adam Hawkes IN: Sustainable Production and Consumption 32, pp. 880-894,

The authors compare five NETs: afforestation/reforestation (AR), enhanced weathering (EW), mangrove restoration (MR), bioenergy and direct air capture with carbon storage (BECCS and DAC), using life cycle assessment to determine their environmental impacts (global warming, freshwater, toxicity etc.). If consistent removal of CO2 from the atmosphere is the goal, then AR and MR have the lowest environmental impacts. However, if large and quick CO2 removal is the goal then EW, DAC and BECCS have similar, if not lower, environmental impacts.