Kategorie: New Publications

Wang et al. (2023): Role of biochar toward carbon neutrality

Liuwei Wang, Jiayu Deng, Xiaodong Yang, Renjie Hou, Deyi Hou IN: Carbon Res. 2, 2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s44246-023-00035-7

In this review, the authors highlight the huge potential of biochar application in different fields to mitigate as high as 2.56 × 109 t CO2e total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per year, accounting for 5.0% of the global GHG emissions. Soil applications of biochar as either a controlled-release fertilizer or an immobilization agent offer improved soil health while simultaneously suppressing the emissions of CH4 and N2O.

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Nature-Gruber et al. (2023): Trends and variability in the ocean carbon sink

Nicolas Gruber, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Tim DeVries, Luke Gregor, Judith Hauck, Peter Landschützer, Galen A. McKinley, Jens Daniel Müller IN: Nat Rev Earth Environ (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-022-00381-x

In this Review, the authors discuss trends and variations in the ocean carbon sink. The sink stagnated during the 1990s with rates hovering around –2 Pg C year–1, but strengthened again after approximately 2000, taking up around –3 Pg C year–1 for 2010–2019. The most conspicuous changes in uptake occurred in the high latitudes, especially the Southern Ocean.

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Moinet et al. (2023): Carbon for soils, not soils for carbon

Gabriel Y. K. Moinet, Renske Hijbeek, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Ken E. Giller IN: Global Change Biology, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16570

The authors critically re-examine the benefits of global SOC (soil organic carbon) sequestration strategies on both climate change mitigation and food production. While estimated contributions of SOC sequestration to climate change vary, almost none take SOC saturation into account. Here, the authors show that including saturation in estimations decreases any potential contribution of SOC sequestration to climate change mitigation by 53%–81% towards 2100. In addition, reviewing more than 21 meta-analyses, they found that observed yield effects of increasing SOC are inconsistent, ranging from negative to neutral to positive. Tha authors find that the promise of a win-win outcome is confirmed only when specific land management practices are applied under specific conditions.

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Nature- Rohatyn et al. (2023): Large variations in afforestation-related climate cooling and warming effects across short distances

Shani Rohatyn, Eyal Rotenberg, Fyodor Tatarinov, Yohay Carmel, Dan Yakir IN: Commun Earth Environ 4, 18; https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-023-00678-9

The authors show in a four-year study that the biogeochemical vs. biogeophysical balance in paired forested and non-forested ecosystems across short distances (approximately 200 Km) and steep aridity gradient (aridity index 0.64 to 0.18) can change dramatically. The required time for the forestation cooling effects via carbon sequestration, to surpass warming effects associated with the forests’ reduced albedo and suppressed longwave radiation, decreased from 213 years in the driest sites to 73 years in the intermediate and 43 years in the wettest sites.

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Nature-Krevor et al. (2023): Subsurface carbon dioxide and hydrogen storage for a sustainable energy future

Samuel Krevor, Heleen de Coninck, Sarah E. Gasda, Navraj Singh Ghaleigh, Vincent de Gooyert, Hadi Hajibeygi, Ruben Juanes, Jerome Neufeld, Jennifer J. Roberts, Floris Swennenhuis IN: Nat Rev Earth Environ (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-022-00376-8

Gigatonne scale geological storage of carbon dioxide and energy (such as hydrogen) will be central aspects of a sustainable energy future, both for mitigating CO2 emissions and providing seasonal-based green energy provisions. In this Review, the authors evaluate the feasibility and challenges of expanding subsurface carbon dioxide storage into a global-scale business, and explore how this experience can be exploited to accelerate the development of underground hydrogen storage.

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Hickey et al. (2023): A review of commercialisation mechanisms for carbon dioxide removal

Conor Hickey, Sam Fankhauser, Stephen M. Smith, Myles Allen IN: Front. Clim. 4, Sec. Negative Emission Technologies, https://doi.org/10.3389/fclim.2022.1101525

In this paper the authors survey the policy mechanisms currently in place globally to incentivise CDR, together with an estimate of what different mechanisms are paying per tonne of CDR, and how those costs are currently distributed. Incentive structures are grouped into three structures, market-based, public procurement, and fiscal mechanisms. WThe authors find the majority of mechanisms currently in operation are underresourced and pay too little to enable a portfolio of CDR that could support achievement of net zero.

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Zhuang et al. (2023): Potential capture and conversion of CO2 from oceanwater through mineral carbonation

Wen Zhuang, Xiaocheng Song, Min Liu, Qian Wang, Jinming Song, Liqin Duan, Xuegang Li, Huamao Yuan IN: Science of The Total Environment 867, 161589, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161589

This review explores two main mechanisms (i.e., enhanced weathering and ocean alkalinization) and materials (e.g., silicate rocks, metal oxides, and metal hydroxides) that regulate marine chemical carbon sink (MCCS). This work also compares MCCS with other terrestrial and marine carbon sinks and discusses the implementation of MCCS, including the following aspects: chemical reaction rate, cost, and possible ecological and environmental impacts.

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La Plante et al. – Working paper: Electrolytic seawater mineralization and how it ensures (net) carbon dioxide removal

Erika La Plante, Xin Chen, Steven Bustillos, Arnaud Bouissonnie, Thomas Traynor, David Jassby, Lorenzo Corsini, Dante Simonetti, Gaurav Sant IN: ChemRxiv. Cambridge: Cambridge Open Engage; 2023

The authors present mass balances associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR) using seawater as both the source of reactants, and as the reaction medium via electrolysis following the “EquaticTM” (formerly known as “SeaChange”) process. The process involves the application of an overpotential that splits water to form H+ and OH– ions, producing acidity and alkalinity, i.e., in addition to gaseous co-products, at the anode and cathode, respectively. The alkalinity that results, i.e., via the “continuous electrolytic pH pump” results in the instantaneous precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), magnesium carbonates (Mg–CO3), and/or magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) depending on the CO32– activity in solution.

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Berger et al. (2023): Ocean dynamics and biological feedbacks limit the potential of macroalgae carbon dioxide removal

Manon Berger, Lester Kwiatkowski, David T. Ho, Laurent Bopp IN: Environmental Research Letters, DOI 10.1088/1748-9326/acb06e

The authors modify a high-resolution ocean biogeochemical model to simulate the consumption of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and macronutrients by idealised macroalgal cultivation in Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs). Under imposed macroalgal production of 0.5 PgC yr-1 with no nutrient feedbacks, physicochemical processes are found to limit the enhancement in the ocean carbon sink to 0.39 PgC yr-1 (1.43 GtCO2 yr-1), corresponding to CDR efficiency of 79%. Only 0.22 PgC yr-1 (56%) of this air-sea carbon flux occurs in the regions of macroalgae cultivation, posing potential issues for measurement, reporting and verification (MRV).

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Hong et al. (2023): Effects of Afforestation on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Accumulation Depend on Initial Soil Nitrogen Status

Songbai Hong, Nan Cong, Jinzhi Ding, Shilong Piao, Lingli Liu, Josep Peñuelas, Anping Chen, Timothy A. Quine, Hui Zeng, Benjamin Z. Houlton IN: AGU Global Biochemical Cycles 37 (1); https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GB007490

In this study, the authors conducted an intensive field sampling investigation including 610 pairs of afforested and control plots in northern China and extensively compiled a global data set containing 211 afforested-control pairs worldwide to evaluate responses of soil N concentrations and C:N ratios to afforestation and further explored their major regulator.

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