Kategorie: New Publications

Science-Rohatyn et al. (2022): Limited climate change mitigation potential through forestation of the vast dryland regions

Shani Rohatyn, Dan Yakir, Eyal Rotenberg, Yohay Carmel IN: Science Vol 377, Issue 6613, pp. 1436-1439, DOI: 10.1126/science.abm9684

Actual climatic benefits of forestation are uncertain because the forests’ reduced albedo can produce large warming effects. Using high-resolution spatial analysis of global drylands, the authors found 448 million hectares suitable for afforestation. This area’s carbon sequestration potential until 2100 is 32.3 billion tons of carbon (Gt C), but 22.6 Gt C of that is required to balance albedo effects.

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Nature – Klemme et al. (2022): Destabilization of carbon in tropical peatlands by enhanced weathering

Alexandra Klemme, Tim Rixen, Moritz Müller, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke IN: Nature – Commun Earth Environ 3, 212 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00544-0

Here, the authors present estimates for the response of CO2 emissions from tropical peat soils, rivers and coastal waters to changing soil acidity induced by enhanced weathering application. They estimate that the potential carbon uptake associated with enhanced weathering is reduced by 18–60% by land-based re-emission of CO2 and is potentially offset completely by emissions from coastal waters.

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Kludze et al. (2022): Biocement from the Ocean: Hybrid Microbial-Electrochemical Mineralization of CO2

Atsu Kludze, Devan Solanki, Marcelo Lejeune, Rito Yanagi, Momoko Ishii, Neera Raychaudhuri, Paul Anastas, Nanette Boyle, Shu Hu IN: iScience, 105156, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.105156

This work discusses a hybrid method that combines primary production via the growth of autotrophic microorganisms (i.e., photosynthetic cyanobacteria) and microbially-induced carbonate precipitation. Carbon fixation and carbonate precipitation can be co-optimized by using bipolar membrane electrodialysis devices (BPMEDs), which generate seawater with adjustable pH. The authors examine the scale-up potential for naturally produced bio-carbonate composite materials and compare its production with published ocean CDR strategies for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

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Janssens et al. (2022): Negative erosion and negative emissions: Combining multiple land-based carbon dioxide removal techniques to rebuild fertile topsoils and enhance food production

Ivan A. Janssens, Dries Roobroeck, Jordi Sardans, Michael Obersteiner, Josep Peñuelas, Andreas Richter, Pete Smith, Erik Verbruggen, Sara Vicca IN: Front. Clim., 07 September 2022, Sec. Negative Emission Technologies, https://doi.org/10.3389/fclim.2022.928403

This paper elaborates on the idea to take these CDR technologies (biochar amendment, soil carbon sequestration) a step further and use them not only to drawdown CO2 from the atmosphere, but also to rebuild fertile soils (negative erosion) in areas that suffer from pervasive land degradation and have enough water available for agriculture. This way of engineering topsoil could contribute to the fight against malnutrition in areas where crop and livestock production currently is hampered by surface erosion and nutrient depletion, and thereby alleviate pressure on intact ecosystems.

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Borchers et al. (2022): Contribution to Net-Zero-2050 Germany – the portfolio of carbon dioxide removal options

Malgorzata Borchers, Daniela Thrän, Yaxuan Chi, Nicolaus Dahmen, Roland Dittmeyer, Tobias Dolch, Christian Dold, Johannes Förster, Michael Herbst, Dominik Heß, Aram Kalhori, Ketil Koop-Jakobsen, Zhan Li, Nadine Mengis, Thorsten B. Reusch, Imke Rhoden, Torsten Sachs, Cornelia Schmidt-Hattenberger, Angela Stevenson, Terese Thoni, Jiajun Wu, Christopher Yeates IN: Front. Clim. Sec. Negative Emission Technologies, doi: 10.3389/fclim.2022.810343

The authors investigated various near-to-market CDR options for Germany, which the authors present in the form of thirteen dedicated model concepts. They cover technical CO2 removal (two models of direct air carbon capture, i.e. DACC), hybrid solutions (six bioenergy with carbon capture technologies, i.e., BECC) and five options for natural sink enhancement, so-called Nature-Based Solutions (NBS).

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Nature – Xu et al. (2022): Delayed use of bioenergy crops might threaten climate and food security

Siqing Xu, Rong Wang, Thomas Gasser, Philippe Ciais, Josep Peñuelas, Yves Balkanski, Olivier Boucher, Ivan A. Janssens, Jordi Sardans, James H. Clark, Junji Cao, Xiaofan Xing, Jianmin Chen, Lin Wang, Xu Tang, Renhe Zhang IN: Nature 609, 299–306 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05055-8

The potential of mitigation actions to limit global warming within 2 °C might rely on the abundant supply of biomass for large-scale bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) that is assumed to scale up markedly in the future. However, the detrimental effects of climate change on crop yields may reduce the capacity of BECCS and threaten food security, thus creating an unrecognized positive feedback loop on global warming. The authors quantified the strength of this feedback by implementing the responses of crop yields to increases in growing-season temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration and intensity of nitrogen (N) fertilization in a compact Earth system model.

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Nature – Diederichsen et al. (2022): Electrochemical methods for carbon dioxide separations

Kyle M. Diederichsen, Rezvan Sharifian, Jin Soo Kang, Yayuan Liu, Seoni Kim, Betar M. Gallant, David Vermaas, T. Alan Hatton IN: Nature Reviews Methods Primers 2, 68 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43586-022-00148-0

The authors provide an overview of the experimentation and analysis needed for the study of electrochemical methods for CO2 separation, including a discussion of the considerations necessary for targeting the application of such techniques. The article focuses on ambient temperature techniques such as pH swing and direct redox processes, which utilize similar experimental set-ups.

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Ishaq & Crawford (2022): Potential of offshore wind energy for direct air capture

Haris Ishaq & Curran Crawford IN: International Journal of Energy Research, https://doi.org/10.1002/er.8506

The authors develop a conceptual design and conduct an energy assessment of two dominating DAC designs to show the potential of offshore wind to meet the DAC energy demand for two different scenarios capturing 3.3 GtCO2/y (10%) and 11 GtCO2/y (33.3%) of current global CO2 emissions covering a range of estimates for future NETs required to meet net-zero goals.

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Chimuka et al. [Preprint]: Quantifying land carbon cycle feedbacks under negative CO2 emissions

V. Rachel Chimuka, Claude-Michel Nzotungicimpaye, Kirsten Zickfeld IN: Biogeosciences Discuss. [preprint], https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2022-168, in review, 2022

This study investigates land carbon cycle feedbacks under positive and negative CO2 emissions using an Earth system model driven with idealized scenarios of atmospheric CO2 increase and decrease, run in three modes. The results show that the magnitude of carbon cycle feedbacks differs between the atmospheric CO2 ramp-up (positive emissions) and ramp-down (negative emissions) phases.

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Wallmann et al. (2022): Erosion of carbonate-bearing sedimentary rocks may close the alkalinity budget of the Baltic Sea and support atmospheric CO2 uptake in coastal seas

Klaus Wallmann, Markus Diesing, Florian Scholz, Gregor Rehder, Andrew W. Dale, Michael Fuhr, Erwin Suess IN: Front. Mar. Sci., Sec. Coastal Ocean Processes, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.968069

The authors investigate the alkalinity budget of the Baltic Sea to identify previously unrecognized alkalinity sources. They quantify the generation of alkalinity and dissolved calcium (Ca) in this marginal sea applying simple mass balance calculations. Using this approach, the authors identify alkalinity and Ca sources of approximately 324 Gmol yr-1 and 122 Gmol yr-1, respectively, that cannot be ascribed to the riverine input.

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