CO₂-removal News

Webinar: MRV for Ocean-Based CDR: Innovations in Modeling and Observations

February 8, 2024, 7 – 8pm CET, hosted by Ocean-Climate Solutions Innovation Exchange

Three leading scientists developing innovative tools will share how modeling works alongside monitoring and other approaches to MRV and describe what they see as the key current challenges and advancements in the field. Dr. Raphael Ouillon (atdepth MRV), Dr. Alicia Karspeck ([C]Worthy), and Dr. Ellen Briggs (Aquatic Labs) are featured speakers. Talks will be followed by a moderated audience Q&A.

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Cheng et al. (2024): Quaternized Plant-Based Porous Biochar for Direct Air Capture of CO2 by Moisture-Swing Adsorption

Xinyue Cheng, Xueyan Sun, Shiqiang Zheng, Wenjia Zhou, Zhen Yuan, Liangliang Zhu, Xi Chen IN: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.3c03023

In this work, through a quaternization process, inexpensive and readily available plant-based biochars including walnut shell, cornstalk, rice husk, and long-stalked lentil shell were prepared as moisture-swing adsorbents to capture CO2 from ambient air. Among these biochar adsorbents, the most effective one was found to be the quaternized long-stalked lentil shell, whose CO2 adsorption capacity reached 0.88 mmol/g at 25 °C and 50% relative humidity, which is around five times that of previously reported biochar moisture-swing adsorbents (including bamboo cellulose and chitosan aerogel).

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Ampah et al. (2024): Prioritizing Non-Carbon Dioxide Removal Mitigation Strategies Could Reduce the Negative Impacts Associated with Large-Scale Reliance on Negative Emissions

Jeffrey Dankwa Ampah, Chao Jin, Haifeng Liu, Sandylove Afrane, Humphrey Adun, David Morrow, David T. Ho IN: Environmental Science & Technology, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.3c06866

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) is necessary for reaching net zero emissions, with studies showing potential deployment at multi-GtCO2 scale by 2050. However, excessive reliance on future CDR entails serious risks, including delayed emissions cuts, lock-in of fossil infrastructure, and threats to sustainability from increased resource competition. This study highlights an alternative pathway─prioritizing near-term non-CDR mitigation and minimizing CDR dependence. The authors impose a 1 GtCO2 limit on global novel CDR deployment by 2050, forcing aggressive early emissions reductions compared to 8–22 GtCO2 in higher CDR scenarios. 

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Yang & Timmermans (2024): Assessing the effective settling of mineral particles in the ocean with application to ocean-based carbon-dioxide removal

Adam Jiankang Yang, Mary-Louise Timmermans IN: Environmental Research Letters, DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ad2236

The effectiveness of ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE) relies on particles remaining in the ocean mixed layer while dissolution takes place, which depends on particle settling rates. Conventionally, particle settling rates are assessed using the Stokes settling velocity in stagnant conditions. However, recent numerical modeling reveals that in dynamic, stratified ocean environments, sediment vertical transport can be up to an order of magnitude faster than Stokes settling because of two types of fluid instabilities that can take place at the mixed layer base. Here, the authors estimate effective settling velocities in the presence of these instabilities and assess the implications for the efficacy of this particular OAE approach for CDR.

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Uchale et al. (2024): Investigating Terrestrial Carbon Uptake Over India Using Multimodel Simulations of Gross Primary Productivity and Satellite-Based Biophysical Product

Gayatri Uchale, Pramit Kumar Deb Burman, Yogesh K. Tiwari, Amey Datye, Aharna Sarkar IN: Biogeosciences, https://doi.org/10.1029/2023JG007468

Gross primary productivity (GPP) represents the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. The multimodel ensembles of GPP simulated by the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) provide a useful means in this regard. In this work, teh authors study the strength and variability of GPP over India in the near-past and future using these simulations.

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Bhatnagar et al. (2024): Nature Based Solutions: Carbon Sequestration by Standing Trees in Urban Parks and Gardens of Katni City in Madhya Pradesh, India

Pratibha Bhatnagar, Rajesh Barman, Jay Prakash George IN: International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 14, DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i13881

This study aims at estimating contribution of urban Parks and gardens by carbon sequestration and suggests suitable strategies that can be helpful in reducing climate change impacts in urban centres. The challenges of climate change can be efficiently overcome by the storage of carbon in terrestrial carbon sinks viz. plants, plant products and soils for longer periods. Selection of appropriate trees can help mitigate climate impact. Non-destructive sampling method of biomass estimation was used to measure to GBH of individual trees.

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He et al. (2024): Biomass yield potential on U.S. marginal land and its contribution to reach net-zero emission

Yufeng He, Deepak Jaiswal, Stephen P. Long, Xin-Zhong Liang, Megan L. Matthews IN: GCB-Bioenergy, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.13128

BECCS requires using limited land resources efficiently while ensuring minimal adverse impacts on the delicate food-energy-water nexus. Perennial C4 biomass crops are productive on marginal land under low-input conditions avoiding conflict with food and feed crops. The eastern half of the contiguous U.S. contains a large amount of marginal land, which is not economically viable for food production and liable to wind and water erosion under annual cultivation. However, this land is suitable for geological CO2 storage and perennial crop growth. Given the climate variation across the region, three perennials are major contenders for planting. The yield potential and stability of Miscanthus, switchgrass, and energycane across the region were compared to select which would perform best under the recent (2000–2014) and future (2036–2050) climates. 

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Saharudin et al. (2024): Biochar from agricultural wastes: Environmental sustainability, economic viability and the potential as a negative emissions technology in Malaysia

Djasmine Mastisya Saharudin, Harish Kumar Jeswani, Adisa Azapagic IN: Science of The Total Environment, 170266, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170266

Biochar used for soil amendment is considered a viable negative emissions technology as it can be produced easily from a wide range of biomass feedstocks, while offering numerous potential agricultural benefits. This research is the first to present a comprehensive sustainability assessment of large-scale biochar production and application in Malaysia.

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Licentiate thesis: Modeling the Potential for Carbon Removal in Agriculture: Integrating Farmer Perspectives

Andreas Rehn, Chalmers Universtiy of Technology

The overarching aim of this thesis is to provide insights into the dynamic processes governing SOC stocks and to identify viable paths for agricultural systems to contribute to climate change mitigation. By integrating current scientific knowledge of carbon sequestration in agriculture with feasible agricultural applications, this work proposes local realistic strategies for enhancing soil organic carbon and presents a quantitative assessment of their potential for CO2 removal.

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Woods et al. (2024): Biomass Composting with Gaseous Carbon Dioxide Capture

Ethan D Woods , Vanessa Rondon Berrio , Yaojing Qiu , Perry Berlin , Nicolás Martín Clauser, William Joe Sagues IN: RSC Sustainability, https://doi.org/10.1039/D3SU00411B

Composting with gaseous CO2 capture is an overlooked BiCRS technology with significant potential for atmospheric carbon removal. For the first time, the authors demonstrate the capture of high purity gaseous CO2 from biomass composting. 

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