Bisotti et al. (2023): Direct Air capture (DAC) deployment: A review of the industrial deployment

Filippo Bisotti, Karl Anders Hoff, Anette Mathisen, Jon Hovland IN: Chemical Engineering Science 283, 119416,

In seven years, CO2 removal (CDR) technologies are expected to reach a Technology Readiness Level (TRL), relevant to industrial applications. The most promising technologies are at TRL-7, but the jump to TRL-11 in the new IEA scale for disruptive technologies looks unlikely because the scale-up from small pilots to industrial scale requires time and large investments. Moreover, validation on a large scale is still missing or even unplanned. This work also identifies the critical materials supply chain and the competition with the energy transition as limiting factors which could further hinder DAC deployment and reduce DAC contribution in the next years when a first significant emissions cut should be addressed.