Category: Reports

Ashes to ashes, carbon to soil: A cost-benefit analysis of abatement measures to increase soil carbon-sequestration capacity

Markus Zimmer, Arne Holzhausen, Francesco Iezzi, Haki Pamuk, Marcia Arredondo Rivera, Jurrian Nannes, Maria Naranjo Barrantes, Nico Polman, Willem-Jan van Zeist, Allianz, April 30, 2024

This study examines five soil improvement measures — three crop management practices (cover cropping, no tillage and use of green manure) and two broader land restoration techniques (agroforestry and sustainable forest management) — that can enhance soil quality, in six countries: Germany, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and the UK. All these measures contribute to preventing soil erosion, enhancing carbon sequestration, and improving biodiversity.


Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) 2024-2044: Technologies, Players, Carbon Credit Markets, and Forecasts

Eve Pope, ITTechEx Research, April 2024

This report provides a comprehensive outlook of the emerging CDR industry and carbon credit markets, with an in-depth analysis of the technological, economic, regulatory, and environmental aspects that are shaping this market. In it, IDTechEx focuses on technologies that actively draw CO₂ from the atmosphere and sequester it into carbon sinks, namely: Direct air carbon capture and storage (DACCS), Biomass with carbon removal and storage (BiCRS) including approaches such as BECCS (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage), biochar, biomass burial, and bio-oil underground injection, Land-based CDR methods, i.e. afforestation and reforestation and soil carbon sequestration techniques, Mineralization NETs that enhance natural mineral processes and Ocean-based CDR methods.


The Landscape of Carbon Dioxide Removal and US Policies to Scale Solutions

Whitney Jones, Galen Bower, Nathan Pastorek, Ben King, John Larsen, Trevor Houser, Naveen Dasari, Kelly McCusker, Rhodium Group, April 20, 2024

In this report, the authors survey the current and vast landscape of different CDR approaches in the US, informed by the latest peer-reviewed literature, dozens of expert interviews, and new analysis. They also assess the current state of policy support and additional policy options to help CDR scale to the level required for mid-century decarbonization in the US.


Biochar Permanence Report: Unlocking the Potential of Biochar: A Closer Look at Its Permanence

Bier, H., Lerchenmüller, H., European Biochar Industry, March 14, 2024

In the quest to understand permanence of biochar, our report sheds light on critical findings from two scientific publications by Sanei et al. (2024) and Azzi et al. (2024). The report, authored by Secretary General Harald Bier and Board Chairman Hansjörg Lerchenmüller at EBI, offers a comparative analysis of results from the two studies. It reveals a key gap: most incubation experiments use carbonized material that is not representative of biochar produced commercially today. Moreover, these studies often lack detailed characterization of biochar fractions, hindering a comprehensive understanding of their properties. Another key point posited in the paper is that the observed degradation rates shown in incubation experiments are consistent with the size of the labile fractions that are known to be easily degradable.


Word Ocean Review 8: The Ocean – A Climate Champion? How to Boost Marine Carbon Dioxide Uptake

by Sina Löschke together with Thorben Amann, Christian Baatz, Miranda Böttcher, Oliver Geden, David P. Keller, Achim Kopf, Christine Merk, Sebastian Milinski, Katja Mintenbeck, Andreas Oschlies, Julia Pongratz, Alexander Proelß, Gregor Rehder, Wilfried Rickels, Ulf Riebesell, Michael Sswat, Lukas Tank, Klaus Wallmann, Lennart Westmark, Mirco Wölfelschneider, Martin Zimmer, maribus, March 14, 2024

What action should we take for the effective mitigation of climate change? Measures to avoid greenhouse gas emissions are surely the main priority – but the truth is that in the coming decades, we will also have to remove large quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it securely. Can – indeed, should – the ocean aid us in this task? The new World Ocean Review (WOR 8) explores this issue with reference to the oceans’ role in the Earth’s carbon cycle and looks at the benefits, risks and knowledge gaps around the main marine carbon dioxide removal techniques.


Report: Report on a sustainable development goals framework for ocean-based NET evaluation

David P. Keller and Wilfried Rickels, GEOMAR, January 2024

This report describes a CDR SDG assessment framework that was developed for future use in evaluating the sustainability of different ocean-based CDR options or portfolios. The assessment methodology describes how the user should first collect relevant information about the CDR approach(es) and then match it to the corresponding SDG indicators or sub-indicators. After that the user must transform (normalize) the derived indicator data for comparability. Then, the user must follow several steps of weighting, aggregation, and evaluation that follow an SDG structured nesting approach. In the end the methodology allows the user to quantify CDR impacts on progress towards attaining overall “sustainability”. No application of the framework was done as part of this task, but should be done in future research endeavors.


Working Paper: Prospects and challenges for implementing land-based climate change mitigation in support of carbon dioxide removal in China

Mathieu Mal, Huiling Zhu, Francis X. Johnson, February 07, 2024

In this working paper, the authors present an overview of China’s greenhouse gas emissions and its land-based carbon stocks and flows, with a spotlight on potential for land-based mitigation technologies and practices (LMTs) for carbon dioxide removal, based on the published literature. They also provide an analysis of LMT-related policies and perspectives on LMT development and future trends from experts, with discussion and conclusions based on the policy analysis and experts’ insights.


Report: Large-scale carbon dioxide removal and dual accounting: Microsoft and Ørsted

James Burbridge, Wilfried Maas, A.J. Simon, Julio Friedmann, Carbon Direct, 2023

In this report, the Carbon Direct science team explores dual accounting on national ledgers and organizational inventories in the context of the collaboration between Microsoft and the Danish government, on which Carbon Direct served as a technical advisor. The report explains the key differences between problematic double counting—when two private entities claim credit for the same emissions reduction or removal—and functional dual accounting—when a private entity’s reduction is reflected on a national inventory.


Report: Exploring the carbon sequestration potential of rewilding in the UK: policy and data needs to support net zero

Leo Mercer and Ruth Gregg, Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy & Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, November 2023

This report synthesises the current policy, technical considerations and debate pertaining to rewilding in the UK, with a focus on what contribution, if any, rewilded land can make to supporting the decarbonisation of land use. The provision of other environmental, biodiversity and social benefits across England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland is also considered.