Kategorie: Scientific Theses

Master-thesis: Institutional Analysis of Direct Air Capture in the context of Aviation Sustainability

Amogh Ravishankara, Delft University of Technology, August 2023

This thesis report presents an analysis of the suitability of adopting Direct Air Capture (DAC) for aviation sustainability, viewed through an institutional analysis lens using the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. DAC is framed as a technology niche from the Multi-Level Perspective to get a descriptive understanding of the problem context and the interconnected parts in the larger picture of aviation sustainability innovations. Specific to DAC, multiple dimensions of DAC integration in the aviation sector, including technology, actors, and policy analysis are carried out. Employing the IAD framework, the underlying institutional arrangements, rules, and incentives influencing the adoption of DAC for carbon removal in the aviation industry are examined.


Master-Thesis: Assessing Credibility in the Voluntary Carbon Market?

Tim Ziegler, fulfilment of the Master of Science in Environmental Management and Policy Lund, Sweden

Voluntary carbon markets (VCM) have grown significantly over the past years. However, the VCM is facing a ‘credibility crisis’ due to governance, technical, and market issues. Notably, despite the significant role of credibility in the VCM, a lack of systematic assessment frameworks in this area is discerned. To address this knowledge gap, this thesis set out to build, test and evaluate a framework for assessing the credibility of international standard-setting (ISS).


Master-thesis: Production and use of biochar from agricultural plant residues

Viktor Skans, Hanna Steinum, Chalmers tekniska högskola, http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12380/306258

With approximately one fifth of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions originating from agriculture, there is a growing interest in developing agricultural practices that combat climate change while simultaneously enhancing soil health and fertility. This thesis aims to address this challenge by developing an agricultural carbon flow model to quantify climate mitigation potentials of producing biochar using agricultural plant residues as feedstock, at various pyrolytic temperatures. Additionally, a comprehensive literature search was conducted on the interactions between biochar and different types of soils.


Master-thesis: A financial model of electrochemical carbon dioxide removal from seawater for geological sequestration

William MacLeod, Johns Hopkins University, http://jhir.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/68171

A technology recently developed by the Naval Research Laboratory to synthesize liquid hydrocarbon fuels at sea, extracts CO2 from seawater using continuous electrodeionization to temporarily acidify it, thereby shifting the carbonate equilibrium to favor CO2 such that it can be degassed. This paper proposes modifying their technology to focus on CO2 extraction for the purpose of geological sequestration, rather than fuel synthesis. It uses pro forma cash flow analyses of annual revenues and expenses to estimate the financial viability of the approach across three scenarios representing low, medium and high economic optimism.


PhD-thesis: Structure design of fiber sorbents for maximizing direct air capture efficiency

Young Hun Lee, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, http://hdl.handle.net/10203/308477

The electric-vacuum swing adsorption method was taken into consideration for effective solid sorbent regeneration in DAC conditions. A novel electrified fiber sorbent that was suitable for use with the swing process and capable of Joule heating was created by dip coating process of metal on surface of the fiber. The metal with exceptional conductivity such as silver (Ag) was used to maximize the Joule heating effect while requiring less energy. The issue with the supply of regeneration energy for DAC will finally be resolved thanks to the electrified fiber sorbent’s low-power regeneration drive, which raises the prospect of utilizing renewable energy sources like solar or wind power. In this study, to reduce the cost of the DAC process, the various fiber sorbents with a novel structure has been developed and the resulting high-performance fiber sorbents will introduce a new paradigm in the field of DAC technology.


Master-thesis: A geological investigation on bedrock suitability for mineral carbonation conducted in the south central part of Sweden

by Edvard Pearson, Luleå University of Technology, 2023

This study aims to investigate the suitability of areas located in the south-central part of Sweden for in-situ mineral carbonation, a relatively newly implemented method of permanently storing carbon dioxide. The project has been conducted in connection with the research project INSURANCE at Luleå University of Technology, which has as one of its main objectives to investigate the geological potential for land-based carbon dioxide storage in Sweden. Samples were taken from five different localities in the southern-central part of Sweden. Fifteen representative field samples were then examined with optical microscopy, whole rock geochemistry analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-XRF in order to characterize the area’s bedrock with respect to their potential suitability for in-situ mineral carbonation.


PhD-thesis: Action Levers towards Sustainable Wellbeing: Re-Thinking Negative Emissions, Sufficiency, Deliberative Democracy

Sascha Nick, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), https://doi.org/10.5075/epfl-thesis-10487

This thesis explores how some of our most pressing issues, especially climate, biodiversity, or inequality, could be effectively solved using „action levers“, coordinated action on multiple leverage points, like mindset (#2), system goal (#3), power to change system structure (#4), or rules (#5). Three action levers are identified, explored and partly tested: Negative Emissions, Sufficiency, Deliberative Democracy. If suitably governed, Negative Emissions could reverse their current effect of extending the fossil era and its power relations and, while limited to perhaps 10% of current emissions, significantly accelerate decarbonization – a beneficial case of the „tail wagging the dog“. 


Master-thesis: The effects of land-use changes on forest carbon storage – The case of new building scenario 2016-2050 for the Uusimaa region

by Eveliina Heikkala, Aalto University, https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/121668

This thesis aimed to study how the predicted new residential construction affects the aboveground carbon (AGC) storage of forest trees in the Uusimaa region in 2030 and 2050. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of regression was assessed. This study was conducted as qualitative research which utilizes regression analyses and computational approaches. To provide theoretical background for the study, a literature review was conducted. The review covered relevant topics, such as the global carbon cycle, carbon sequestration in forests and forest policy framework. In addition, previous research regarding urbanization induced changes in forest carbon stocks were reviewed.


PhD-Thesis: A Review of the Social and Justice-Related Implications of Direct Air Capture Deployment at Scale

Adam Green, University of Pennsylvania, 2023

This research review the hazards of DAC deployment, or the lack thereof, in order to successfully integrate environmental justice considerations into its deployment. Previous publications and the current political climate will be reviewed as it pertains to DAC, and overall considerations and recommendations for environmental justice mapping and policy will be presented based on analysis of the literature.


PhD-thesis: Ocean Afforestation’s effect on deep-sea biogeochemistry

Merel Lanjouw, Utrecht University, Adviser: Olivier Sulpis

This research looks at the consequences of the seaweed input to deep-seafloor. An early diagenetic model called RADI is used to predict the fate of the carbon and the effect on biogeochemistry. The model was adapted to include new sources of sedimentary organic matter, such as seaweed (Sargassum, Saccharina, Macrocystis) and Sugarcane bagasse, which are currently considered potential candidates for ocean afforestation purposes.