CO₂-removal News

McDermott et al. (2024): Enhanced weathering for CO2 removal using carbonate-rich crushed returned concrete; a pilot study from SE Ireland

Frank McDermott, Maurice Bryson, Ruadhan Magee, David van Acken IN: Applied Geochemistry, 169, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2024.106056

A 1.21-ha pilot study in SE Ireland investigated crushed returned concrete (CRC), applied at a rate of 7.5 tonnes/ha as a soil amendment for carbon dioxide removal (CDR) by enhanced weathering (EW) over a 10-month period.

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Clarkson et al. (2024): A review of measurement for quantification of carbon dioxide removal by enhanced weathering in soil

Matthew O. Clarkson, Christina S. Larkin, Philipp Swoboda, Tom Reershemius, T. Jesper Suhrhoff, Cara N. Maesano, James S. Campbell IN: Frontiers in Climate, 6, https://doi.org/10.3389/fclim.2024.1345224

Terrestrial enhanced weathering (EW) involves the acceleration of natural weathering processes via the deployment of crushed rock feedstocks, typically Ca- and Mg-rich silicates, in soils. While models predict this has the potential to remove multiple gigatonnes of CO2 annually, as an open-system pathway, the measurement (monitoring), reporting, and verification (MRV) of carbon removal and storage is challenging. Here the authors provide a review of the current literature showing the state-of-play of different methods for monitoring EW. The authors focus on geochemical characterization of weathering processes at the weathering site itself, acknowledging that the final storage of carbon is largely in the oceans, with potential losses occurring during transfer.

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Weber et al. (2024): Potential long-term, global effects of enhancing the domestic terrestrial carbon sink in the United States through no-till and cover cropping

Maridee Weber, Marshall Wise, Patrick Lamers, Yong Wang, Greg Avery, Kendalynn A. Morris, Jae Edmonds IN: Carbon Balance and Management, 19, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13021-024-00256-2

Enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink, through practices such as the adoption of no-till and cover cropping agricultural management, could provide a contribution to offsetting hard-to-abate emissions. Changing domestic agricultural practices to optimize carbon content, however, might reduce or shift US agricultural commodity outputs and exports, with potential implications on respective global markets and land use patterns. Here, we use an integrated energy-economy-land-climate model to comprehensively assess the global land, trade, and emissions impacts of an adoption of domestic no-till farming and cover cropping practices based on carbon pricing.

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Dong et al. (2024): Negative emission potential from biomass/waste combined heat and power plants integrated with CO2 capture: An approach from the national perspective

Beibei Dong, Shuo Wang, Eva Thorin, Qie Sun, Hailong Li IN: Journal of Cleaner Production, 467, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2024.142917

Integrating carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in biomass or waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants has been considered a key measure to achieve negative emissions. This paper proposed a bottom-up approach based on a dynamic modelling to evaluate the potental of nationwide negative emissions. As heat supply is often prioritized by CHP plants, unchanged heat generation is a prerequisite of this study. Two operating modes (OMs) for the integration of CO2 capture are investigated, which can represent the upper and lower boundaries of CO2 capture: OM1 aims to maximize the amount of captured CO2, while electricity generation can be sacrificed; OM2 aims to maximize the amount of captured CO2, while the electricity generation is maintained unchanged. Sweden is employed as a case study.

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El Zohbi et al. (2024): Engaging Stakeholders in Your Carbon Dioxide Removal Research. Reflection Paper with Learnings & Recommendations from the CDRterra research programme

Juliane El Zohbi, Lukas Fehr, Samuel Eberenz, Danny Otto, Diana Rechid, Marcos Jiménez Martínez, Fernando-Esteban Montero-de-Oliveira, Felix Gulde, Lara Bartels, Maximilian Witting, Nils Matzner, Sabine Reinecke, Samuel Fischer, Veronika Strauss, June 10, 2024

Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) is a growing field that is getting more and more attention from a variety of stakeholders across science, economy, politics, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) etc. We understand stakeholders as persons, groups and organizations that are affected by or influence a (research) topic. This interest often brings together different stakeholders to acquire basic knowledge, build networks or advocate for shared interests. Here, we do not go deeper into the “why” of stakeholder engagement in research – this is sufficiently presented in literature and frameworks for transdisciplinary and responsible research and innovation (e.g., Stilgoe et al., 2013; Bammer, 2013). Instead, we reflect on the multitudes of “whats” and “hows” of CDR-related stakeholder engagement we encountered in the research programme CDRterra. The 10 consortia within CDRterra engaged with stakeholders in many different ways. Here, we share our experiences and reflections as well as synthesize learnings on how best to proceed – for researchers already engaging with stakeholders or planning to involve stakeholders in upcoming CDR-related projects.

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Science – Graven et al. (2024): Bomb radiocarbon evidence for strong global carbon uptake and turnover in terrestrial vegetation

Heather D. Graven, Hamish Warren, Holly K. Gibbs, Samar Khatiwala, Charles Koven, Joanna Lester, Ingeborg Levin, Seth A. Spawn-Lee, Will Wieder IN: Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.adl4443

Net primary productivity (NPP), the storage of carbon within plant tissues resulting from photosynthesis, is a major carbon sink that we rely on for slowing climate change. Global NPP estimates are variable, leading to uncertainty in modeling current and future carbon cycling. Graven et al. updated NPP estimates using radiocarbon data from nuclear bomb testing in the 1960s. This analysis of radiocarbon uptake into vegetation suggested that current models underestimate NPP, likely by underestimating the carbon stored in short-lived, nonwoody tissues. This work suggests that plants store more carbon but for a shorter time frame than is currently recognized.

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Nature – Angst et al. (2024): Conceptualizing soil fauna effects on labile and stabilized soil organic matter

Gerrit Angst, Anton Potapov, François-Xavier Joly, Šárka Angst, Jan Frouz, Pierre Ganault, Nico Eisenhauer IN: Nature Communications, 15, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-024-49240-x

Here, the authors review how the ecological strategies of a multitude of soil faunal taxa can affect the formation and persistence of labile (particulate organic matter, POM) and stabilized soil organic matter (mineral-associated organic matter, MAOM). They propose three major mechanisms – transformation, translocation, and grazing on microorganisms – by which soil fauna alters factors deemed essential in the formation of POM and MAOM, including the quantity and decomposability of organic matter, soil mineralogy, and the abundance, location, and composition of the microbial community. Determining the relevance of these mechanisms to POM and MAOM formation in cross-disciplinary studies that cover individual taxa and more complex faunal communities, and employ physical fractionation, isotopic, and microbiological approaches is essential to advance concepts, models, and policies focused on soil organic matter and effectively manage soils as carbon sinks, nutrient stores, and providers of food.

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Kim et al. (2024): Recent advances in engineering fast-growing cyanobacterial species for enhanced CO2 fixation

David S. Kim, José Ángel Moreno-Cabezuelo, Eduardo Nicolas Schulz, David J. Lea-Smith, Uma Shankar Sagaram IN: Frontiers in Climate, 6, https://doi.org/10.3389/fclim.2024.1412232

In this review, the authors evaluated the thermodynamic considerations of performing atmospheric carbon removal using microalgae and cyanobacteria versus physicochemical processes and explore the implications of these energetic costs on the scalability of each respective solution. They review the biomass productivities of recently discovered fast-growing cyanobacterial strains and discuss the prospects of genetically engineering certain metabolic pathways for channeling the fixed carbon into metabolic ‘carbon sinks’ to further enhance their CO2 capture while concurrently extracting value. The authors share our perspectives on how new highly productive chassis strains combined with advanced flux balance models, essentially coupling synthetic biology with industrial biotechnology, may unlock more favorable methods for CDR, both from an economic and thermodynamic perspective.

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Liu et al. (2024): Soil carbon sequestration increment and carbon-negative emissions in alternate wetting and drying paddy ecosystems through biochar incorporation

Chang Liu, Taotao Chen, Feng Zhang, Hongwei Han, Benji Yi, Daocai Chi IN: Agricultural Water Management, 300, 108908, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2024.108908

How biochar incorporation converts rice paddy into carbon negative and enhances soil carbon sequestration (SOCS) remain largely unexplored, especially under alternate wetting and drying irrigation (IAWD). A 3-yr field experiment was conducted utilizing a split-plot design with continuous flooding irrigation (ICF) and IAWD as main plots and two biochar incorporations at the rate of 0 t ha−1 (B0) and 20 t ha−1 (B20) as sub-plots.

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Nuttall & MacGregor (2024): A Canadian case study of carbon dioxide removals and negative emission hydrogen production

William J. Nuttall, Ian MacGregor IN: Renewable and Sustainable Energy, https://doi.org/10.55092/rse20240005

This paper presents an expert perspective on a new Nature-Based Solution to contemporary problems in energy and climate policy. The paper presents an emergent industrial proposition which combines Canadian forestry technology with chemical engineering capabilities developed by the oil and gas industry.

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