CO₂-removal News

Höning et al. (2024): Reversibility of Greenland ice sheet mass loss under artificial carbon dioxide removal scenarios

Dennis Höning, Matteo Willeit, Andrey Ganopolski IN: Environmental Research Letters, 19, 2, DOI 10.1088/1748-9326/ad2129

With ongoing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) approaches critical thresholds of inevitable, long-term mass loss. Future technologies might be able to efficiently remove CO2 from the atmosphere and thereby cool down our planet. The authors explore whether and to what extent a realization of this concept could lead to a regrowth of the GIS once it has partly melted. Using the fully coupled Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-X, emission pulses between 0 and 4000 GtC are released into the atmosphere, and after 1 kyr, 2 kyr, and 5 kyr, the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced back to its pre-industrial value.

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Garrido et al. (2023): Implementing vanadium peroxides as direct air carbon capture materials

Eduard Garrido Ribó, Zhiwei Mao, Jacob S. Hirschi, Taylor Linsday, Karlie Bach, Eric D. Walter, Casey R. Simons, Tim J. Zuehlsdorff, May Nyman IN: Chemical Science, DOI: 10.1039/D3SC05381D

Here the authors explore metastable early d0 transition metal peroxide molecules that undergo stabilization via multiple routes, including DAC. Specifically here, they describe via experiment and computation the mechanistic conversion of A3V(O2)4 (tetraperoxovanadate, A = K, Rb, Cs) to first a monocarbonate VO(O2)2(CO3)3−, and ultimately HKCO3 plus KVO4. Single crystal X-ray structures of rubidium and cesium tetraperoxovanadate are reported here for the first time, likely prior-challenged by instability. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), 51V solid state NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), tandem thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) along with calculations (DFT, density functional theory) all converge on mechanisms of CO2 capture and release that involve the vanadium centre, despite the end product of a 300 days study being bicarbonate and metavanadate. 

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Soinne et al. (2024): High organic carbon content constricts the potential for stable organic carbon accrual in mineral agricultural soils in Finland

Helena Soinne, Matti Hyyrynen, Medilė Jokubė, Riikka Keskinen, Jari Hyväluoma, Sampo Pihlainen, Kari Hyytiäinen, Arttu Miettinen, Kimmo Rasa, Riitta Lemola, Eetu Virtanen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaakko Heikkinen IN: Journal of Environmental Management, 352, 119945, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.119945

The authors used agronomic soil test results representing c. 95% of the farmed land area in Finland to estimate the potential of the uppermost 15 cm soil layer of mineral agricultural soils to sequester organic carbon (OC) and to contribute to the mitigation of climate change. The estimation of the maximum capacity of mineral matter to protect OC in stable mineral-associated form was based on the theory that clay and fine-sized (fines = clay + silt) particles have a limited capacity to protect OC. In addition, they used the clay/OC and fines/OC ratios to identify areas with a risk of erosion and reduced productivity, thus indicating priority areas potentially benefitting from the increased soil OC contents. 

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Ojeda et al. (2024): Biochar ageing effects on soil respiration, biochar wettability and gaseous CO2 adsorption

Gerardo Ojeda, João M. Gil, Stefania Mattana, Jörg Bachmann, Katell Quenea, Abílio J. F. N. Sobral IN: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-024-10107-7

After its application to soil, biochar suffers an ageing process, able to deteriorate its functional properties as soil improver. However, at present, it is not clear how to evaluate biochar ageing. The main aim of this study is to evaluate biochar ageing by determination of temporal changes on (a) soil respiration after biochar addition and (b) the relationship between CO2 adsorption capacity and wettability of biochar as measurable parameters indicating biochar ageing. 

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Cameli et al (2024): Conceptual Process Design and Technoeconomic Analysis of an e-Methanol Plant with Direct Air-Captured CO2 and Electrolytic H2

Fabio Cameli, Evangelos Delikonstantis, Afroditi Kourou, Victor Rosa, Kevin M. Van Geem, Georgios D. Stefanidis IN: Energy Fuels, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c04147

CO2-based methanol synthesis routes solely based on renewable electricity have been proposed. However, the production route via direct air-captured (DAC) CO2 and green H2 from water electrolysis (WE) is not industrially available, and in-depth feasibility studies are needed to determine its viability. By designing a 50 kt y–1 e-MeOH production plant based on DAC-CO2 and electrolytic H2, the authors assess the plant’s performance and economic feasibility against the state-of-the-art industrial manufacturing based on natural gas steam reforming. Absorption-based DAC accounts for the highest capital expenditure (CAPEX) of the plant, whereas the proton-exchange membrane WE drives electricity consumption.

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Yang & Timmermans (2024): Assessing the effective settling of mineral particles in the ocean with application to ocean-based carbon-dioxide removal

Adam J K Yang, Mary-Louise Timmermans In: Environmental Research Letters 19, 024035, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ad2236

Ocean alkalinity enhancement, a potential approach for atmospheric carbon dioxide removal, can involve introducing milled mineral particles into the ocean to promote carbon dioxide uptake. This paper estimates effective settling velocities in the presence of these instabilities and assess the implications for the efficacy of this particular Ocean alkalinity enhancement approach for CDR.

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Udaypal et al. (2024): Advances in microalgae-based carbon sequestration: Current status and future perspectives

Udaypal, Rahul Kumar Goswami, Sanjeet Mehariya, Pradeep Verma IN: Environmental Research 249, 118397, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2024.118397

This paper explains how to optimize microalgal CO2 sequestration, integrate valuable product generation, and explore novel techniques like genetic manipulations, phytohormones, quantum dots, and AI tools to enhance the efficiency of CO2 sequestration.

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Low et al. (2024): An earth system governance research agenda for carbon removal

Sean Low, Miranda Boettcher, Shinichiro Asayama, Chad Baum, Amanda Borth, Calum Brown, Forrest Clingerman, Peter Dauvergne, Kari De Pryck, Aarti Gupta, Matthias Honegger, Dominic Lenzi, Renate Reitsma, Felix Schenuit, Celina Scott-Buechler, Jose Maria Valenzuela IN: Earth System Governance 19, 100204, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esg.2024.100204

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) – the creation, enhancement, and upscaling of carbon sinks – has become a pillar of national and corporate commitments towards Net Zero emissions, as well as pathways towards realizing the Paris Agreement’s ambitious temperature targets. In this perspective, the authors explore CDR as an emerging issue of Earth System Governance (ESG). 

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Working Paper: Prospects and challenges for implementing land-based climate change mitigation in support of carbon dioxide removal in China

Mathieu Mal, Huiling Zhu, Francis X. Johnson, February 07, 2024

In this working paper, the authors present an overview of China’s greenhouse gas emissions and its land-based carbon stocks and flows, with a spotlight on potential for land-based mitigation technologies and practices (LMTs) for carbon dioxide removal, based on the published literature. They also provide an analysis of LMT-related policies and perspectives on LMT development and future trends from experts, with discussion and conclusions based on the policy analysis and experts’ insights.

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Kharissova et al. (2024): Carbon negative footprint materials: A review

Alena B. Kharissova, Oxana V. Kharissova, Boris I. Kharisov, Yolanda Peña Méndez IN: Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, 37, 101100, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoso.2024.101100

Herein, the authors describe main definitions and terms of the carbon neutrality and negativity, current and near-future trends in achieving their goals, and corresponding techniques and materials. Global strategies to reach carbon neutrality/negativity are discussed, including green chemistry routes, efficient materials processing, correct materials selection and substitution, use of naturally renewable and recyclable materials, among other definite or synergistic carbon-capture ideas. Carbon negative materials include biochar, several carbon negative concretes and cements, biomass, bamboo-, wood- and grass-derived construction materials, recycled polymers and biopolymers, MOFs and MOF-derived nanocarbons, as well as other nanomaterials and nanocomposites on their basis, including nano-enabled membranes and filters. 

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